The Traditional Chinese Medicine Wisdom of Herbtail GlucoMetabol (Part 2): Eight Pathogenic Mechanisms of Diabetes and Holistic Therapy

Diabetes is widely researched internationally, and its pathogenic mechanisms have increased from the original eight factors to 11 or 12, with more new pathogenic factors expected to be discovered in the future. These mechanisms include influences from genetics, environment, lifestyle, and the immune system, each of which can contribute to the onset and development of diabetes to varying degrees.

Eight Pathogenic Mechanisms of Diabetes

Currently, the consensus in the academic community is based on the eight mechanisms proposed by diabetes expert Professor DeFronzo:

  1. Decreased insulin secretion from the pancreas: In the early stages of the disease, peripheral tissues of the patient develop insulin resistance, requiring the pancreas to secrete more insulin to stabilize blood sugar. When the pancreas is “overworked” for a long time, the beta cells responsible for insulin secretion gradually fail, leading to insufficient insulin secretion.
  2. Increased glucagon secretion from the pancreas: The pancreas not only secretes insulin but also secretes a hormone called glucagon through alpha cells, which, as the name suggests, has the effect of raising blood sugar, thereby causing hyperglycemia.
  3. Increased gluconeogenesis in the liver: In addition to detoxification, the liver has the ability to perform gluconeogenesis, which can regulate blood sugar levels. When the liver abnormally produces glucose, it causes elevated blood sugar.
  4. Decreased incretin effect in the small intestine: The intestine is responsible for nutrient absorption and can also secrete hormones that regulate blood sugar and appetite, collectively known as incretins. Incretins can stimulate insulin secretion and control appetite; thus, when their secretion decreases, blood sugar rises uncontrollably.
  5. Imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain: The brain is the command center of the human body and also has the ability to control food intake and blood sugar. When neurotransmitter imbalance occurs in the brain, the body’s diet and blood sugar cannot be controlled, leading to obesity and diabetes.
  6. Increased renal glucose reabsorption: The kidneys not only excrete waste from the body but can also reabsorb glucose from urine for reuse by the body. When too much glucose is reabsorbed by the kidneys, it results in hyperglycemia.
  7. Decreased glucose utilization by muscles: Muscles use glucose as the primary energy source, a process that requires the assistance of insulin. When muscle cells develop insulin resistance, their ability to consume glucose decreases, causing elevated blood sugar.
  8. Increased lipolysis in adipose tissue: Adipose tissue can store energy and is also an endocrine organ closely related to energy metabolism. In addition to producing fatty acids during its breakdown, when fat cells abnormally accumulate in muscles and the liver, they also contribute to insulin resistance.

These mechanisms interact and collectively contribute to the onset and development of diabetes. Therefore, effective treatment of diabetes requires simultaneous regulation of these pathogenic mechanisms.

Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


Design Concept of Holistic Therapy

By simultaneously activating these eight pathogenic mechanisms through comprehensive treatment, we can achieve faster, more effective treatment results with fewer side effects. This is because the various elements have complementary effects on each other. For example, when kidney function improves, the kidneys’ filtering ability increases, inflammation decreases, and urination becomes smoother. While this may seem unrelated to the three highs (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension), the health of the kidneys and liver is crucial for diabetes control.

In treating diabetes, we emphasize a holistic approach to health. Besides controlling blood sugar, it is also necessary to focus on the functions of other vital organs such as the kidneys and liver. The liver plays a key role in glucose and fat metabolism, while the kidneys are important for waste excretion and electrolyte balance. Therefore, our treatment strategy is multifaceted, aiming to enhance the overall health of the patient comprehensively.

In summary, treating diabetes is not just about controlling blood sugar. It requires a multifaceted approach that considers various pathogenic mechanisms and leverages the synergistic effects of multiple therapeutic mechanisms to achieve effective, rapid treatment with minimal side effects. Such a strategy not only better controls diabetes but also enhances the overall quality of life for patients.

Practical Outcomes of Holistic Therapy

In our practice, holistic therapy has shown significant results. Many patients have effectively controlled their blood sugar levels and significantly improved their quality of life using our treatment plan. Not only have their blood sugar levels stabilized, but they have also reduced the risk of other complications such as kidney disease and cardiovascular diseases.

For example, one patient experienced significant improvement in kidney function after using our treatment plan, with clearer urine and smoother urination, resulting in a noticeable improvement in overall health. These outcomes demonstrate the effectiveness and scientific validity of holistic therapy.

With ongoing scientific research, we believe that more pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes will be discovered in the future, and our holistic therapy will continue to improve and develop.